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DC Generators DC EQUIPMENT TERMINOLOGY DC EQUIPMENT TERMINOLOGY Direct  current  devices  are  used  frequently  in  today’s  technology.    Before  the construction  and  operation  of  these  devices  can  be  introduced,  a  few  common terms must be understood. EO 1.1 DEFINE  terminal  voltage  as  it  applies  to  DC generators. EO 1.2 DEFINE counter-electromotive force (CEMF) as it applies to a DC machine. EO 1.3 DESCRIBE the effects of commutation in a DC generator. Terminal Voltage Terminal voltage, as applied to DC generators, is defined as the voltage that can be measured at the output of the generator. Counter-Electromotive Force (CEMF) In a generator using a  rotating armature, the conductors cut the magnetic lines of force in the magnetic field.   Voltage is induced in the armature conductors.   This induced voltage opposes the applied voltage; it counteracts some of the applied voltage, which reduces the current flow through the armature.  This induced voltage acts counter to applied voltage; therefore, it is called counter-electromotive force (CEMF). Applied Voltage Applied voltage is defined as the voltage that is delivered across the load.   This voltage should be  the  same  as  terminal  voltage;  however,  various  circuit  faults  and  losses  may  reduce  the terminal voltage. Commutation Commutation  is the positioning of the DC generator brushes so that the commutator segments change  brushes at  the  same  time the  armature  current changes  direction.   More simply  stated, commutation is the mechanical conversion from AC to DC at the brushes of a DC machine, as shown in Figure 1. Rev. 0 Page 1 ES-05


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