AC GENERATION ANALYSIS
Basic AC Theory
Phase difference is also used to compare two different currents or a current and a voltage. If the
phase difference between two currents, two voltages, or a voltage and a current is zero degrees,
they are said to be "in-phase." If the phase difference is an amount other than zero, they are said
to be "out-of-phase."
Equation (7-9) is a mathematical representation of the voltage associated with any particular
orientation of a coil (inductor).
= induced EMF
= maximum induced EMF
= angle from reference (degrees or radians)
What is the induced EMF in a coil producing a maximum EMF of 120 V when
the angle from reference is 45°?
e = Emax sin q
e = 120 V (sin 45°)
e = 84.84 V
The maximum induced voltage can also be called peak voltage Ep. If (t) is the time in which the
coil turns through the angle (q), then the angular velocity (w) of the coil is equal to q/t and is
expressed in units of radians/sec. Equation (7-10) is the mathematical representation of the
w = angular velocity (radians/sec)
t = time to turn through the angle from reference (sec)
q = angle from reference (radians)
Using substitution laws, a relationship between the voltage induced, the maximum induced
voltage, and the angular velocity can be expressed. Equation (7-11) is the mathematical
representation of the relationship between the voltage induced, the maximum voltage, and the
angular velocity, and is equal to the output of an AC Generator.