Types of Thermodynamic Systems

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Thermodynamics THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES Everything external to the system is called the thermodynamic surroundings, and the system is separated from the surroundings by the system boundaries.  These boundaries may either be fixed or movable.  In many cases, a thermodynamic analysis must be made of a device, such as a heat exchanger,  that  involves  a  flow  of  mass  into  and/or  out  of  the  device.    The  procedure  that  is followed  in  such  an  analysis  is  to  specify  a  control  surface,  such  as  the  heat  exchanger  tube walls.   Mass, as well as heat and work (and momentum), may flow across the control surface. Types of Thermodynamic Systems Systems  in  thermodynamics  are  classified  as  isolated,  closed,  or  open  based  on  the  possible transfer of mass and energy across the system boundaries.   An isolated system is one that is not influenced in any way by the surroundings.   This means that no energy in the form of heat or work may cross the boundary of the system.  In addition, no mass may cross the boundary of the system. A  thermodynamic  system  is  defined  as  a  quantity  of  matter  of  fixed  mass  and  identity  upon which  attention  is  focused  for  study.     A  closed  system  has  no  transfer  of  mass  with  its surroundings, but may have a transfer of energy (either heat or work) with its surroundings. An open system is one that may have a transfer of both mass and energy with its surroundings. Thermodynamic Equilibrium When  a  system  is in  equilibrium  with  regard  to  all  possible changes  in  state,  the  system  is  in thermodynamic  equilibrium.    For  example,  if  the  gas  that  comprises  a  system  is  in  thermal equilibrium, the temperature will be the same throughout the entire system. Control Volume A  control volume  is a fixed region in space chosen for the thermodynamic study of mass and energy  balances  for  flowing  systems.   The  boundary  of  the  control  volume  may  be  a  real  or imaginary envelope.   The control surface is the boundary of the control volume. Steady State Steady state is that circumstance in which there is no accumulation of mass or energy within the control volume, and the properties at any point within the system are independent of time. Rev. 0 Page 27 HT-01


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