Fluid FlowHEAD LOSSHEAD LOSSThe head loss that occurs in pipes is dependent on the flow velocity,pipe length and diameter, and a friction factor based on the roughnessof the pipe and the Reynolds number of the flow. The head loss thatoccurs in the components of a flow path can be correlated to a pipinglength that would cause an equivalent head loss.EO 1.21 DEFINE the terms head loss, frictional loss, and minorlosses.EO 1.22 DETERMINE friction factors for various flow situationsusing the Moody chart.EO 1.23 CALCULATE the head loss in a fluid system due tofrictional losses using Darcy’s equation.EO 1.24 CALCULATE the equivalent length of pipe that wouldcause the same head loss as the minor losses that occurin individual components.HeadLossHead loss is a measure of the reduction in the total head (sum of elevation head, velocity headand pressure head) of the fluid as it moves through a fluid system. Head loss is unavoidable inreal fluids. It is present because of: the friction between the fluid and the walls of the pipe; thefriction between adjacent fluid particles as they move relative to one another; and the turbulencecaused whenever the flow is redirected or affected in any way by such components as pipingentrances and exits, pumps, valves, flow reducers, and fittings.Frictional loss is that part of the total head loss that occurs as the fluid flows through straightpipes. The head loss for fluid flow is directly proportional to the length of pipe, the square ofthe fluid velocity, and a term accounting for fluid friction called the friction factor. The headloss is inversely proportional to the diameter of the pipe.Head Loss f^{Lv}2DFrictionFactorThe friction factor has been determined to depend on the Reynolds number for the flow and thedegree of roughness of the pipe’s inner surface.Rev. 0 Page 31 HT-03

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