Automatic Control System

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PRINCIPLES OF CONTROL SYSTEMS Process Controls Automatic Control System An  automatic  control  system  is  a  preset  closed-loop  control  system  that  requires  no  operator action.    This  assumes  the  process  remains  in  the  normal  range  for  the  control  system.    An automatic control system has two process variables associated with it:  a controlled variable and a manipulated variable. controlled variable is the process variable that is maintained at a specified value or within a specified range.   In the previous example, the storage tank level is the controlled variable. manipulated variable is the process variable that is acted on by the control system to maintain the  controlled  variable  at  the  specified  value  or  within  the  specified  range.    In  the  previous example, the flow rate of the water supplied to the tank is the manipulated variable. Functions of Automatic Control In any automatic control system, the four basic functions that occur are: Measurement Comparison Computation Correction In the water tank level control system in the example above, the level transmitter measures the level within the tank.  The level transmitter sends a signal representing the tank level to the level control  device,  where  it  is  compared  to  a  desired  tank  level.    The  level  control  device  then computes how far to open the supply valve to correct any difference between actual and desired tank levels. Elements of Automatic Control The three functional elements needed to perform the functions of an automatic control system are: A measurement element An error detection element A final control element IC-07 Page 4 Rev. 0


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