Higher Concepts of Mathematics STATISTICSSolution:First, determine the number of possible outcomes. In this case, there are 6 possibleoutcomes. From the stated problem, the roll is a success only if a 3 is rolled. There isonly 1 success outcome and 5 failures. Therefore,Probability = 1/(1+5)= 1/6In calculating probability, the probability of a series of independent events equals the product ofprobability of the individual events.Example:Using a die, what is the probability of rolling two 3s in a row?Solution:From the previous example, there is a 1/6 chance of rolling a three on a single throw.Therefore, the chance of rolling two threes is:1/6 x 1/6 = 1/36one in 36 tries.Example:An elementary game is played by rolling a die and drawing a ball from a bag containing3 white and 7 black balls. The player wins whenever he rolls a number less than 4 anddraws a black ball. What is the probability of winning in the first attempt?Solution:There are 3 successful outcomes for rolling less than a 4, (i.e. 1,2,3). The probability ofrolling a 3 or less is:3/(3+3) = 3/6 = 1/2 or 50%.Rev. 0 Page 9 MA-05

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