Fundamentals of Chemistry
Chemical Bonding Summary
The following terms are defined in this chapter:
An ionic bond occurs where one or more electrons are wholly transferred
from one element to another, and the elements are held together by the force
of attraction due to the opposite polarity of the charge.
The van der Waals forces are attractions between the molecules of nonpolar
covalent substances. These forces are generally believed to be caused by a
temporary dipole, or unequal charge distribution, as electrons constantly
move about in an atom, ion, or molecule.
A covalent bond is a bond in which one or more electrons from an atom pair
off with one or more electrons from another atom and form overlapping
electron shells in which both atoms share the paired electrons.
Metallic bonds are bonds where the atoms achieve a more stable
configuration by sharing the electrons in their outer shell with many other
A mixture is defined as two substances placed together in a container, in any
ratio and the composition is not of fixed proportion.
A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.
A solute is defined as the substance that dissolves in a solution.
A solvent is defined as the material that dissolves the other substance(s) in
a solution. It is the dissolving medium.
Solubility is defined as the maximum amount of a substance which will
dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature.
When the shared pair of electrons which are forming the bond in a molecule are
not shared equally, the resulting molecule will have a positive end and a negative
end. This type of bond is a polar covalent bond. The molecules are called dipolar
or polar molecules.
The important information in this chapter is summarized below.