Heat Transfer RADIATION HEAT TRANSFERTwo black bodies that radiate toward each other have a net heat flux between them. The netflow rate of heat between them is given by an adaptation of Equation 2-12.QsA(T41T^{4}_{2} )where:A = surface area of the first body (ft^{2})T_{1}= temperature of the first body (°R)T_{2}= temperature of the second body (°R)All bodies above absolute zero temperature radiate some heat. The sun and earth both radiateheat toward each other. This seems to violate the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which statesthat heat cannot flow from a cold body to a hot body. The paradox is resolved by the fact thateach body must be in direct line of sight of the other to receive radiation from it. Therefore,whenever the cool body is radiating heat to the hot body, the hot body must also be radiatingheat to the cool body. Since the hot body radiates more heat (due to its higher temperature) thanthe cold body, the net flow of heat is from hot to cold, and the second law is still satisfied.EmissivityReal objects do not radiate as much heat as a perfect black body. They radiate less heat than ablack body and are called gray bodies. To take into account the fact that real objects are graybodies, Equation 2-12 is modified to be of the following form.QesAT4where:e = emissivity of the gray body (dimensionless)Emissivity is simply a factor by which we multiply the black body heat transfer to take intoaccount that the black body is the ideal case. Emissivity is a dimensionless number and has amaximum value of 1.0.RadiationConfigurationFactorRadiative heat transfer rate between two gray bodies can be calculated by the equation statedbelow.Qf_{a} f_{e s}A(T^{4}_{1}T^{4}_{2} )Rev. 0 Page 27 HT-02

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