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BATTERY THEORY Batteries BATTERY THEORY A battery converts chemical energy to electrical energy.  This conversion enables electrical power to be stored. EO 1.2 STATE the purpose of a battery. EO 1.3 DESCRIBE the operation of a simple voltaic cell. EO 1.4 STATE  the  chemical  equation  for  the  reaction that  occurs  when  a  lead-acid  battery  is  being charged or discharged. EO 1.5 EXPLAIN   the   relationship   between   specific gravity and state of charge of a lead-acid battery. Batteries The purpose  of a  battery is to  store chemical  energy and to  convert this  chemical energy into electrical energy when the need arises. As described in previous chapters, a chemical cell (or voltaic cell) consists of two electrodes of different types of metals or metallic compounds and an electrolyte solution which is capable of conducting an electric current. A  good  example  of  a  voltaic  cell  is  one  that  contains  zinc  and  copper  electrodes.    The  zinc electrode contains an abundance of negatively charged atoms, and the copper electrode contains an abundance of positively charged atoms.  When these electrodes are immersed in an electrolyte, chemical  action  begins.    The  zinc  electrode  will  accumulate  a  much  larger  negative  charge because it dissolves into the electrolyte.  The atoms, which leave the zinc electrode, are positively charged and are attracted by the negatively charged ions of the electrolyte; the atoms repel the positively charged ions of the electrolyte toward the copper electrode (Figure 2). ES-04 Page 4 Rev. 0


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