Figure 3   Basic Operation of a DC Generator

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DC GENERATOR THEORY DC Generators Figure 3   Basic Operation of a DC Generator A single conductor, shaped in the form of a loop, is positioned between the magnetic poles.   As long as the loop is stationary, the magnetic field has no effect (no relative motion).   If we rotate the loop, the loop cuts through the magnetic field, and an EMF (voltage) is induced into the loop. When we have relative motion between a magnetic field and a conductor in that magnetic field, and the direction of rotation is such that the conductor cuts the lines of flux, an EMF is induced into the conductor.   The magnitude of the induced EMF depends on the field strength and the rate at which the flux lines are cut, as given in equation (5-1).  The stronger the field or the more flux lines cut for a given period of time, the larger the induced EMF. Eg  = KFN (5-1) where Eg   = generated voltage K   = fixed constant F   = magnetic flux strength N   = speed in RPM The  direction  of  the  induced  current  flow  can  be  determined  using  the  "left-hand  rule"  for generators.   This rule states that if you point the index finger of your left hand in the direction of the magnetic field (from North to South) and point the thumb in the direction of motion of the  conductor,  the  middle  finger  will  point  in  the  direction  of  current  flow  (Figure 4).   In  the generator shown in Figure 4, for example, the conductor closest to the N pole is traveling upward across the field; therefore, the current flow is to the right, lower corner.   Applying the left-hand rule to both sides of the loop will show that current flows in a counter-clockwise direction in the loop. ES-05 Page 6 Rev. 0


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