CONTINUITY EQUATION Fluid FlowContinuity Equation Summary• Density changes in a fluid are inversely proportional to temperature changes.• Buoyancy is the tendency of a body to float or rise when submerged in afluid.• The pressure exerted by a column of water is directly proportional to theheight of the column and the density of the water.P =r h gg_{c}• Pascal’s law states that pressure applied to a confined fluid is transmittedundiminished throughout the confining vessel of a system.• Volumetric flow rate is the volume of fluid per unit time passing a point ina fluid system.• Mass flow rate is the mass of fluid per unit time passing a point in a fluidsystem.• The volumetric flow rate is calculated by the product of the average fluidvelocity and the cross-sectional area for flow.VA v• The mass flow rate is calculated by the product of the volumetric flow rateand the fluid density.mr A v• The principle of conservation of mass states that all mass flow rates into acontrol volume are equal to all mass flow rates out of the control volumeplus the rate of change of mass within the control volume.• For a control volume with a single inlet and outlet, the continuity equationcan be expressed as follows:m_{inlet}m_{outlet}• For a control volume with multiple inlets and outlets, the continuityequation is:m_{inlets}m_{outlets}HT-03 Page 16 Rev. 0

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