Review of Introductory Mathematics FOUR BASIC ARITHMETIC OPERATIONSSubtraction can be verified by adding the difference to the subtrahend, which shouldresult in the minuend.MultiplyingWholeNumbersMultiplication is the process of counting a number two or more times. It can be considered ashortened form of addition. Thus, to add the number 4 three times, 4 + 4 + 4, we can usemultiplication terms, that is, 4 multiplied by 3. When numbers are multiplied, the result is calledthe product. The numbers multiplied are called factors. One factor is called the multiplicand;the other is called the multiplier. Multiplication is indicated by the times or multiplication sign(x), by a raised dot ( ), or by an asterick (*).9 Multiplicandx4xMultiplier36 ProductIn multiplying several numbers, the same product is obtained even if the numbers are multipliedin a different order or even if some of the numbers are multiplied together before the finalmultiplication is made. These properties are called the commutative and associative laws formultiplication.The commutativelaw for multiplication states that numbers can be multiplied in anyorder, and the result is the same product. In equation form:a x b = b x a(1-4)Thus, the product of 8 x 3 is the same as 3 x 8.The associativelaw for multiplication states that factors can be associated in any order,and the result is the same product. In equation form:a x (b x c) = (a x b) x c(1-5)Thus, the numbers 2, 3, and 5 can be multiplied by first multiplying 2 x 3 to equal 6 andthen multiplying 6 x 5 to equal 30. The equation may also be solved by first multiplying3 x 5 to equal 15, and then multiplying 15 x 2 to equal 30. In either case, the productis 30.In multiplying two numbers, one number is placed under the other with the digits arranged incolumns placing units under the units place, tens under the tens place, and so on. Usually, thelarger number is considered the multiplicand and the smaller number is considered the multiplier.The digit in the units place of the multiplier is multiplied first, the digit in the tens place of themultiplier next, and so on.Rev. 0 Page 11 MA-01

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