Fundamentals of Chemistry
ACIDS, BASES, SALTS, AND pH
Acids turn litmus paper red.
Acid solutions conduct electricity.
Acids react with bases to form a salt and water.
Acids react with carbonates to form CO (carbon dioxide gas).
Bases are substances that produce hydroxide ions (OH ) in water solutions. An example of a
common base is sodium hydroxide, NaOH. In solution, it dissociates to form sodium ions and
hydroxide ions according to the following equation:
Common types of bases are lye, household ammonia, and most soaps. The following are four
characteristic properties of bases.
Basic solutions taste bitter and feel slippery to the touch.
Bases turn litmus paper blue.
Basic solutions conduct electricity.
Bases neutralize acids.