Fundamentals of Chemistry
The development of matter, no matter what the form, is the result of the
practical application of the assumptions, hypotheses, theories, and laws that
chemists have formulated from their research into the nature of matter,
energy, and change. This chapter will address some of these theories and
laws. Chemical bonds and how atoms bond to form molecules will be
discussed. In addition, an introduction to organic chemistry is provided.
EO 2.1 DEFINE the following terms:
Van der Waals forces
EO 2.2 DESCRIBE the physical arrangement and bonding of a polar
EO 2.3 DESCRIBE the three basic laws of chemical reactions.
EO 2.4 STATE how elements combine to form chemical compounds.
EO 2.5 EXPLAIN the probability of any two elements combining to
form a compound.
EO 2.6 DEFINE the following terms:
As stated in the previous chapter, the number of electrons in the outer, or valence, shell
determines the relative activity of the element. The arrangement of electrons in the outer shell
explains why some elements are chemically very active, some are not very active, and others
are inert. In general, the fewer electrons an element must lose, gain, or share to reach a stable
shell structure, the more chemically active the element is. The likelihood of elements forming
compounds is strongly influenced by the completion of the valence shell and by the stability
of the resulting molecule. The more stable the resulting molecules are, the more likely these
molecules are to form. For example, an atom that "needs" two electrons to completely fill the
valence shell would rather react with another atom which must give up two electrons to
satisfy its valence.