THE PERIODIC TABLE
Fundamentals of Chemistry
Periodic Table Summary
The subdivisions of the periodic table are periods, groups, and classes. The
horizontal rows are called periods. The vertical columns are called groups.
The entire table consists of three classes: metals, non-metals, and semi-
The subdivisions of the periodic chart have been explained such that the
student should be able to identify them if given a periodic table.
Elements of the same group share certain physical and chemical
characteristics. Examples of the characteristics of several groups are listed
Group 0 contains elements that are unreactive gases.
Group IA contains elements that are chemically active soft metals.
Group VIIA contains elements that are chemically active
Groups IB through VIIB and VIII are called transition groups and
elements found in them display properties of metals.
The valence of an atom is defined as the number of electrons an element
gains or loses, or the number of pairs of electrons it shares when it interacts
with other elements.
The important information from this chapter is summarized below.