AC MOTOR THEORYAC MotorsAt point T1, the current in phase C is at its maximum positive value. At the same instance, thecurrents in phases A and B are at half of the maximum negative value. The resulting magneticfield is established vertically downward, with the maximum field strength developed across theC phase, between pole C (north) and pole C’ (south). This magnetic field is aided by the weakerfields developed across phases A and B, with poles A’ and B’ being north poles and poles A andB being south poles.At Point T2, the current sine waves have rotated through 60 electrical degrees. At this point, thecurrent in phase A has increased to its maximum negative value. The current in phase B hasreversed direction and is at half of the maximum positive value. Likewise, the current in phaseC has decreased to half of the maximum positive value. The resulting magnetic field isestablished downward to the left, with the maximum field strength developed across the A phase,between poles A’ (north) and A (south). This magnetic field is aided by the weaker fieldsdeveloped across phases B and C, with poles B and C being north poles and poles B’ and C’being south poles. Thus, it can be seen that the magnetic field within the stator of the motor hasphysically rotated 60°.At Point T3, the current sine waves have again rotated 60 electrical degrees from the previouspoint for a total rotation of 120 electrical degrees. At this point, the current in phase B hasincreased to its maximum positive value. The current in phase A has decreased to half of itsmaximum negative value, while the current in phase C has reversed direction and is at half ofits maximum negative value also. The resulting magnetic field is established upward to the left,with the maximum field strength developed across phase B, between poles B (north) and B’(south). This magnetic field is aided by the weaker fields developed across phases A and C, withpoles A’ and C’ being north poles and poles A and C being south poles. Thus, it can be seenthat the magnetic field on the stator has rotated another 60° for a total rotation of 120°.At Point T4, the current sine waves have rotated 180 electrical degrees from Point T1 so that therelationship of the phase currents is identical to Point T1 except that the polarity has reversed.Since phase C is again at a maximum value, the resulting magnetic field developed across phaseC will be of maximum field strength. However, with current flow reversed in phase C themagnetic field is established vertically upward between poles C’ (north) and C (south). As canbe seen, the magnetic field has now physically rotated a total of 180° from the start.At Point T5, phase A is at its maximum positive value, which establishes a magnetic fieldupward to the right. Again, the magnetic field has physically rotated 60° from the previous pointfor a total rotation of 240°. At Point T6, phase B is at its maximum negative value, which willestablish a magnetic field downward to the right. The magnetic field has again rotated 60° fromPoint T5 for a total rotation of 300°.Finally, at Point T7, the current is returned to the same polarity and values as that of Point T1.Therefore, the magnetic field established at this instance will be identical to that established atPoint T1. From this discussion it can be seen that for one complete revolution of the electricalsine wave (360°), the magnetic field developed in the stator of a motor has also rotated onecomplete revolution (360°). Thus, you can see that by applying three-phase AC to threewindings symmetrically spaced around a stator, a rotating magnetic field is generated.ES-12 Page 4 Rev. 0

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