F_{g}G m_{1} m_{2}r^{2}F_{e}K Q_{1} Q_{2}r^{2}ATOMIC NATURE OF MATTERDOE-HDBK-1019/1-93Atomic and Nuclear PhysicsNP-01Page 8Rev. 0Newton stated that the gravitational force between two bodies is directly proportional to themasses of the two bodies and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between thebodies. This relationship is shown in the equation below.where:F=gravitational force (newtons)gm=mass of first body (kilograms)1m=mass of second body (kilograms)2G=gravitational constant (6.67 x 10N-m /kg )-1122r=distance between particles (meters)The equation illustrates that the larger the masses of the objects or the smaller the distancebetween the objects, the greater the gravitational force. So even though the masses of nucleonsare very small, the fact that the distance between nucleons is extremely short may make thegravitational force significant. It is necessary to calculate the value for the gravitational force andcompare it to the value for other forces to determine the significance of the gravitational forcein the nucleus. The gravitational force between two protons that are separated by a distance of10meters is about 10newtons.-20-24Coulomb's Law can be used to calculate the force between two protons. The electrostatic forceis directly proportional to the electrical charges of the two particles and inversely proportionalto the square of the distance between the particles. Coulomb's Law is stated as the followingequation.where:F=electrostatic force (newtons)eK=electrostatic constant (9.0 x 10 N-m /C )922Q=charge of first particle (coulombs)1Q=charge of second particle (coulombs)2r=distance between particles (meters)Using this equation, the electrostatic force between two protons that are separated by a distanceof 10meters is about 10 newtons. Comparing this result with the calculation of the-2012gravitational force (10newtons) shows that the gravitational force is so small that it can be-24neglected.